History of Coal Mining in Nova Scotia
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Dept. Mines
Of Mines


Chief Commissioner of Mines and Works:


In submitting a Report on the Provincial Museum, it may be necessary to give some account of its origin. In the beginning of the year 1866 I proposed to the late Andrew McKinley, Esq., Trustee of the Mechanics' Institute of Halifax, to take the Museum of that Institution, and to make it the beginning of a Provincial Museum.

The Mechanic's Institute had become extinct, and the Museum was becoming a ruin. There were still surviving some valuable collections and many interesting specimens. Mr. McKinlay and the other trustee, James Forman, Esq., agreed to my proposal.

I also applied to the Provincial Government for accommodation in the New Provincial Building which was in the course of erection, and it was arranged and agreed to set apart for the Provincial Museum the spacious room which it now occupies. The Provincial Museum being now considered a fact, the Nova Scotia Commission for the Paris Exhibition of 1867,--of which I was the Secretary--purchased Natural History Collections, with the understanding that they were to be brought back from Paris and deposited in the Museum. The collections were: Professor How's complete collection of Nova Scotia Minerals, and his Nova Scotia Herbarium; Downs' collection of Nova Scotia Birds, and Barne's collection of Carboniferous Fossils from Nova Scotia and Cape Breton.

When I returned from Paris, I found some difficulties had arisen which threatened the success of our project. At length, in October, 1858, I was authorised by the Government to take possession of the Museum Room. I received permission trom Mr. Forman, the only surviving Trustee of the Mechanic's Institute, to remove the articles belonging to the Museum, and to deposit them in the room provided in the new Provincial Building. The Provincial Museum was then established.

Our Museum was designed to be a Permanent Exhibition of the Industrial Resources of the Province, combined with a Museum of Science and Art. How far this design has, up to the present, been accomplished, I shall proceed briefly to demonstrate.

Before entering the Museum Room, we come to a fine collection of Building Stones, Granite and Sandstones, with fine specimens of Limestones and Gypsums from various localities in Nova Scotia and Cape Breton. There is also an illustration of Brick manufacture from Lang's establishment at Shubenacadie. Besides these, there are large blocks of coal from the Albion and Acadian Mines. This is only a part of our representation of the Picton Coal Fields. We were obliged, from want of accommodation, to erect the greater part of the Albion Mines' two coal columns, in the Province Building. This is only a beginning of the Nova Scotia (proper) Coal collection. Before us is a block of coal from Cow Bay, Cape Breton,--Block House Mines. This is the first of the Cape Breton collection. The Albion Mines are illustrated by a section of each of the shafts, by J.Hudson, Esq, C.E., the Superintendent, and the Cape Breton part is illustrated by a section of the shaft, by H. Poole, Esq., Superintendent of the Caledonia Mine. This was prepared for the Paris Exhibition. On either side of the collection of blocks of coal are the following interesting specimens: A Fossil Tree--Sigillaria reniformis--from the Albion Mines; blocks of Basalt from thc Giant's Causeway, Ireland; massive Stalactites. from Gibraltar, and a Tree Stump, Sigillaria, from Lesmahagow, Scotland. On the walls are views of Halifax as it was nearly a century ago, and photographs of Dartmouth and the New Provincial Building by way of contrast.

On entering the room we are confronted by a continuation of the economic mineral department, by the gilded obelisk exibited at Paris, representing the quantity of gold extracted from the mines of Nova Scotia from January, 1862, to September, 1866. This stands on a cube representing the quantity of gold extracted from Sept., 1866, to Sept., 1868. Under this is another block representing the quantity extracted from Sept. 1868, to January 1871.

The whole represents a weight of 5 tons, 8 cwt., 2 qrs., 2 lbs. A value of $3,373,431.

The quantity given is according to thc official returns.

On the steps leading to thc obelisk are arranged massive specimens of Limonite (Iron Ore) from the Iron deposits of East River, Pictou County, Brookfield and Londonderry Mines, Colchester County; Sulphur Ore, Sulphuret of Iron, from Shubenacadie; Serpentine from Antigonishe County; Anhydritc (gypsum) from Windsor; Marbles from Cape Breton; Limestone from Springville, Pictou Co.; Sandstones from Pictou and Hants Counties. In the Cases around the base of the obelisk is a fine collection of auriferous quartz specimens from Waverley, Mount Unlacke, Renfrew, Isaac's Harbour, Wine Harbour, Montague, the Ovens and Gay's River. The greater part of this collection, was exhibited in Paris. The International Jury awarded it a silver medal on account of its scientific value. In a case opposite is a continuation of the same department. In this we have Copper Ores from the Counties of Picton and Antigonishe. Pyrolusite and Manganite Binoxide of Manganese and Hydrous Sesquioxide of Manganese. Iron Ores from Nictau; Hematite and Micaceous specular Iron.

Ore from Polson's Lake, Antigonishe County; Spathic Iron Ore, Carbonate of Iron, from Sutherland's River, Pictou County; Limonite, Brown Hematite, from East River, Pictou Co., and from Brookfield, Colchester County. There is here also an interesting illustration from the Londondery Iron Mines--the first bar of iron made at the mines--the collection sent to the Paris Exhibition by E. Jones, Esq., Manager of the Mines, consisting of Ores, Steel Iron, Puddled Steel, Cast Steel, Axe and Chisel. The steel of the collection was made with coke from the Albion Coal Mines, Pictou. It was part of the first steel made at the mines. In the same case is a representation from the works of the Starr Manufacturing Company, Dartmouth. Here are Forbes' Patent Acme Skates, Nails, &c.

In a case near is an interesting collection, not Nova Scottan, containing large specimens of Albertite from New Brunswick, Cinnabar, Sulphuret of Mercury from Almaden, Spain, Copper Ore, Sulphuret of Copper and Iron and Nickel Ore, from Tilt Cove mine, Newfoundland, and Cryolite, fluoride of Alumlnium and Sodium from Greenland.

In the Department of Scientific Mineralogy there are three collections, 1st., The Mechanics Institute collection, 2nd, The Webster collection, 3rd., Professor How's collection.

The first, the Mechanics' Institute collection, is general, and contains about 1000 specimens, I have arranged these according to Dana's manual of Mineralogy. The classification is as follows:

Class I. - Gases, consisting of, or containing, Nitrogen or Hydrogen.

Class II. - Water.

Class III. - Carbon and Compounds for Carbon.

In this class the collection contains a small diamond, having the form of a crystal, which, according to Professor Tennant, F.G.S., occurs ten times among 1000. The specimen is Brazilian.

  • Mineral Coal, 1, with bitumen.
  • Anthracite.
  • 2, without bitumen.
  • Pictou Coals.
  • Cape Breton Coal
  • Cannel Coal
  • Oil Coal
  • Albertite from New Brunswick, and Scotland.
  • Jet,
  • Graphite, Plumbago, a variety of specimens.
  • Amber.
  • Mineral Caoutekouc, Elastic Bitumen,
  • Asphalt.

Class IV. - Sulphur, Native Sulphur, with Celestine, fine specimens.

Class V. - Haloid Minerals.

  • Haloid Rock Salt.
  • Haloid Borate of Soda.
  • Heavy Spar, Sulphate of Baryta.
  • Crystalline, and other firms, in great variety,
  • Celestine, Sulphate of Strontia.
  • Gypsum, Sulphate of Lime.
  • Selenite.
  • Fibrous Gypsum.
  • Gypsum, white, grey, Red, &c.
  • Anhydrite, Anhydrous Sulphate of Lime.
  • Calcareous Spar, Carbonate of Lime.
  • Nail-head Spar. a beautiful specimen.
  • Dog-tooth Spar. a beautiful specimen.
  • Iceland Spar. a beautiful specimen.
  • Satin Spar. a beautiful specimen.
  • Chalk.
  • Salactites, Gibraltar, Bermuda, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky.
  • Limestones.
  • Aragonite
  • Dolomite, Magnesian Carbonate of Lime.
  • Pearl Spar.
  • Rhomb Spar.
  • Ankerite.
  • Apatite. Phosphate of Lime.
  • Crystalline and Massive.
  • Fluor-Spar. Fluate of Lime.
  • Crystalized.
  • White, Green, and Purple.
  • Brucite. Hydrate of Magnesia.
  • Wavelite.

Class VI. - Earthy Minerals.

1. Silica,

  • Quartz.
  • Rock Crystal. Numerous Specimens.
  • Amethyst. Numerous Specimens.
  • Rose Quartz.
  • Smoky Quartz.
  • Avanturine.

2. Chalcedonic Varieties.

  • Chalcedony.
  • Chrysoprase.
  • Carnelian. Red, White, Oriental.
  • Agate.
  • Fortification.
  • Moss Agate.
  • Onyx.
  • Flint.

3. Jaspery Varieties, abundant and beautiful.

  • Opal.
  • Semiopal.
  • Cacholong.
  • Hyalite.
  • Wood Opal.
  • Silicous Sinter.
  • Magnesia.
  • 1. Hydrous Silicates of Magnesia.
  • Tale - Foliated.
  • Soapstone.
  • Chloride.
  • Serpentine, Precious.
  • Serpentine, Common.
  • Anhydrous Silicates of Magnesia.
  • Pyroxene.
  • Coccolite.
  • Asbestus.
  • Angite.
  • Hornblende.
  • Tremolite
  • Chrysolite, Olivine.
  • Alumina.
  • Spinel Ruby,
  • Zeolite Family,
  • Heulandite.
  • Brewsterite.
  • Stilbite.
  • Apophyllite.
  • Laumonite.
  • Natrolite.
  • Thompsonite.
  • Analcime,
  • Chabazite.
  • Chabazite. Acadiolite. Nova Scotia.
  • Prehnite.
  • Andalusite,
  • Staurotide.
  • 0rthoclase. Common Feldspar.
  • 0rthoclase. White, Red, Green.
  • 0rthoclase. Moonstone.
  • Labradorite.
  • Epidote.
  • Garnet.
  • Garnet. Common.
  • Garnet. Precious.
  • Tourmaline.
  • Tourmaline. Black.
  • Rubellite. Red Tourmaline.
  • Mica. Muscovite.
  • Lepidolite.
  • Fuchsite.
  • Topaz.
  • Lapislazuli.
  • Beryl - Emerald.
  • Zircon.
  • Zircon. Hyacinth.

Class VII. - Metals and Metallic Ores.

  • Titanium.
  • Rutile.
  • Tin Ore. Oxyde of Tin.
  • Molybdenite. Sulphuret of Molybdenum.
  • Gray Antimony. Sulphuret of Antimony.
  • Arsenic.
  • Orpiment. Yellow Sulphuret of Arsenic.
  • Pitchblende. Oxide of Uranium.
  • Uranite.
  • Iron.
  • Native Iron. Meteorite.
  • Iron Pyrites.
  • Mispickel. Arsenical Iron Pyrites.
  • Magnetite, Octahedral Iron Ore.
  • Specular Iron Ore.
  • Micaceous Iron,
  • Red Hematite.
  • Clay Iron Stone.
  • Iron Glance.
  • Limonite, Brown Iron Ore.
  • Brown Hematite.
  • Bog Iron Ore.
  • Chromic Iron. Chromate of Iron.
  • Spathic Iron. Carbonate of Iron,
  • Manganese.
  • Pyrolusite. Binoxide of Manganese.
  • Manganite, A Hydrous sesqui oxide of Manganese.
  • Wad. Bog manganese.
  • Copper Nickel. Arsenical Nickel.
  • Smaltine. Tin White Cobalt.
  • Blende. Sulphuret of Zinc.
  • Zincite. Red Zinc Ore. Red oxide of Zinc.
  • Cinnabar. Sulphuret of Mercury.
  • Native Copper.
  • Copper Pyrites. Sulphuret of Copper and Iron,
  • Erubescite, Variegated Copyer Pyrytes.
  • Grey Copper.
  • Ruby Copper Ore.
  • Blue Vitriol. Sulphate of Copper.
  • Malachite. Green Carbonate of Copper,
  • Azurite. Blue Carbonate of Copper.
  • Noble Metals.
  • Native Platinum.
  • Native Gold
  • Native Silver.
  • Brittle Silver Ore. Sulphuret of Silver and Antimony.

The second, or "Webster Collection" contains about 700 specimens. These were collected by the late Dr. Webster, M.P.P., who was well known in Nova Scotia and elsewhere as an enthusiastic naturalist. The collection was presented to the Museum by Mrs. Webster, on the condition that it should be kept distinct and designated as I have indicated. This collection is largely Provincial, and consequently does not include so many varieties of minerals as the first collection. Although its general aspect is Provincial, it still contains many foreign minerals. Some of which are much better specimens than those found in the other collection. This collection is also arranged according to Dana's system. Classes III and IV are represented by many excellent specimens. The collection mainly belongs to Class VI. Earthy Minerals, Silica, Quartz, Vitreous Variety, Rock Crystal, has several beautifully regular Crystals.

Amethyst occurs in great abundance. Two very fine specimens have figured prominently in the collections of Nova Scotfan minerals exhibited in London, Dublin and Paris.

Chaledonic varieties are numerous and beautiful; Fortification and Moss agates.

Opal, varieties, Cacholong, Hyalite, (Foreign), and Wood Opal Magnesia, Hydrous Silicates, Talc, Soapstone, Chlorite, Serpentine, precious and common (Foreign). Anhydrous Silicates, Angite. Hornblende, light varieties, Tremolite, Actinolite, Asbestus, Mountain Leather (Foreign). Zeolite Family, Heulandite, Stilbite, Apophylite, Natrolite, Thomsonite, Native and Foreign, Analcime, Chabazite, Acadiolite, Prehnite, some of these in great variety and beauty, many of them gems.

There are also very large Beryls (Foreign) and excellent specimens of zinc ores and native copper from Lake Superior. The third collection is Dr. How's Paris Collection. This is altogether Nova Scotian. It contains choice specimens of all the mlnerals found in the Province, whether of scientific or economic value; many of the Cabinet Minerals specimens are rare and beautiful. All the new minerals from the Trap of the Province, discovered by Dr. How, are included in the collection. To this is added the best coIlection to be had of the Borates, also discovered by him in the Gypsums of Windsor.

I have thus given a detailed account of the mineral collections in the museum, for the purpose of showing what we have and what we do not have. The mineralogist can thus easily see that while there are some minerals wanting our combined collection is extensive and valuable, and well adapted for the purpose of instruction in the science of mineralogy, and especially the mineralogy of Nova Scotia.

The next department in the Museum is that of Geology and Palacontology. Here we have a large collection of rock specimens, principally Provincial, viz: Granites, Syenites, Diorites, Felsites, Porphyries, Dolerites, Traps, Trachytes, Serpentines, Schists, Quartzites, Argillites, Breccias, Conglomerates, Sandstones, Marbles, Limestones, Gypsums. These represent the geological formations of Nova Scotia and several other countries. The geology of Nova Scotia is further illustrated by Dawson's Map of Nova Scotia, by Professor Hind's Maps of the Gold Fields, by Logan and Hartley's Map of the Pictou Coal Field, by a Progress Map of the Geology of Pictou County, on a scale of an inch to the mile. (The Topographical lines are from the map of Pidtou County, by Churchill.) By a field map of the precarboniferous formations underlying the Pictou Coal Field, made for the Canadian survey, with sections, by a geological map of Antigonishe county, and a geological map of Arisaig, with sections, all by the writer, and by beautiful and accurate views, in water colours, of the Junction of the Upper Silurian and Lower Carboniferous formations on the shore near McAra's Brook, Airsiag, by Kate McDougall, (Mrs. Wilson) and of the carboniferous limestones on the Avon, at Windsor, by Professor Nichols.

General Geology is is illustrated by Maps and Sections of the Canadian Survey, by Geological maps, with sections of England, Scotland and Ireland, by a geological model of the Isle of Wight, and maps of the memoirs of H. M. Survey of Great Britain and Ireland.

In the Palaeontological Seetion. - The Palaeontology of the Nova Scotia Silurian system is illustrated by my Arisaig collection. In this the fossils or remains of animal existence found in the Silurian Rocks of Arisaig, are arranged Geologically and Zoologically. There are 1st., Fossils of the Medina Sandstone, U.S., age. 2nd., of the Lower and Upper Clinton, U.S., age, Middle Solurian. 3rd., F. of the Niagara Limestone, U.S., age. 4th., of the Lower Helderberg, U.S., age, Upper Silurian. Each group is also arranged by beginning with the lower forms of life and ending with the upper, so that the order of formations and life in each beginning from the left of cases, is ascending and from the right, descending. The Arisaig Rocks are typical of Nova Scotian Geology between the Gold fields and Coal fields, and this collection is par excellence. The Arisaig collection. It has been examined by the first Palaeontologists in Europe, and was awarded Medals in London, 1862, Dublin, 1865, and Paris, 1867. The fossils, as far as they have been determined, are named by Hall, Salter, Barrande, Billings and Dawson.

There are also collections of fossils from corresponding formations of East River, McLellans Mountain, Sutherlands River, French River, Barney's River, Marshy Hope, and Lochaber. The whole forms a key to the age and succession of the Precarboniferous Rocks of Antigonish, Pictou, and Colchester Counties.

The Palaeontology of the Silurian formations of the Western part of the Province is illustrated by the Geological part of the "Webster Collection." There are abundance of Slates from Beech Hill, King's County, covered with the pretty sea-fans, Dictyonema Websteri, and fossils corresponding with these of the Upper Silurian of the East. In the same collection are specimens of the Nictau Iron ore, filled with fossils considered to be of Devonian age. In my own collection and also in the "Webster Collection" are abundance of fossils from the Lower Carboniferous Limestone from Cape Breton and Nova Scotia, East, Middle and West. From Limestone of the same age in Baddeck, Cape Breton, is a noble fossil, a fish spine. Ichthyodorulite, Gyracanthus magnificus. This was found by Mr. Kidston and presented to the Museum by the late Mr. Barnes, C.E. The fish to which it belonged must have been of gigantic size. In Barnes' collection there is another unique specimen found in the Coal Measures of Cape Breton. The specimen is a wing of a fly, it must have been a Dragon-fly, measuring 7 inches accross the wings. The Wing is overlaid partially by a fern, the insect has been named Hoplophlebium Barnesii, by Scudder. Barnes's collection, with these exceptions, consists of fossil plants of the Coal formation. This with the addition of the Mechanics Museum collection and a few contributions includes Pinites, Sigillaria, Stigmaria, (roots of Sigillaria) Calamodendra, Lepidodendra, Lepidostrobus, (Fruit) Calamites, Equisetites, Asterophyllites. Suenophyllum, Pinnularia Filices (Ferns,) Cordaites, Sporangites, Antholites, Trigonocarpum, Hookeri, &c. I would particularly notice one rare specimen in this collection, a Fern of the genus Neuropteris with fronds undeveloped, (in vernation.) In the "Webster Collection" there are also several excellent specimens of Carboniferous plants and also in my own collection. In the last collection there are teeth, spines, and scales of fishes of the same period, teeth of Diplodus, Rhizodus, and Holoptychius. In the" Webster Collection" animal tracks (ichnites), and a foot-print of a Sauropus, (reptile), from Parsboro' lent by J. M. Jones Esq., F.L.S. There is also the Dendrerpeton Acadianum, a Joggins reptile, restored by W. B. Waterhouse Hawkins, Esq., F.G.S. The remaining specimens connected with Nova Scotia are the large thigh-bone of the great Mastodon, of the Elephant family, from Middle River, Cape Breton, and a tooth of a small Mastodon. from Baddeck, C. B.

General Palecontology is represented by two collections, the largest, which is arranged in the side cases, begin with the oldest known fossils, if fossil it is, the Eozoon Canadense, and ends with fossils of the human period. The fossils are Canadian, Bohemian, English, Nova Scotian, French, and American, and belong to the Eozoic, Palaeozoic Mesozoic and Cainozoic periods, representing the succession of life on tho Globe. The other collection is not so extensive. It commences with the primordial, or what has been, until lately, generally considered the earliest period of animal existence and ends with the human period. The fossils in this collection are from America, New Brunswick, Canada, Nova Scotia, England, and Mount Lebanon. The greater part of these have been presented to the Museum by the Rev. P. G. McGregor, Dr. Dawson, Dr. Hattie, Mr. Wesley, Mr. Barnwell, and Capt. Piggie, Mr. Marffet, and Mr. Skelley of the ship Northumbrian.

This part is illustrated by a Geographical and Palaeontological Chart constructed by the writer so as to include the Geology and Palaentontology of Nova Scotia, by a Stratigraphical and Palaeontographical Chart, by a number of large figures of fossil-reptiles, Ichthyosauri and Plesiosauri and a series of Magic Lantern Slides, having pictures of fossils and restorations prepared for the purpose of illustrating the Geological Record of Creation. These slides are painted by Mr. Alfred Tennyson Barret, Artist, Halifax.

The Mineralogical and Geological departments which I have thus sketched form the larger part of the Museum, so that our institution may be regarded as to a large extent a Museum of Practical Geology. This impression, together with the conviction that our Provincial prosperity largely depends on the development of our mineral resources induced me to propose the establishment of a Provincial School of Mines in connection with it, in the same way as the Royal School of Mines is established in connection with the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, London. I made the proposal in the columns of the "Morning Chronicle," in which I urged the necessity of such an institution' for the welfare of our Province. I also adduced the example of other countries having mineral wealth and Schools of Mines. I also described the course of study connected with a proper School of Mines. I showed that Halifax was the best possible seat of a School of this kind, as it was situate in the centre of Gold Mines and metallurgical operations connected with Gold Mining, as it was of easy access by railway to Iron Mines and extensive Iron and Steel Works, and at no great distance from Coal Mines and Works. I also showed that we had eminent professors in our colleges, whose teachings might be made available in the course of study proposed, and that the departments of Mines and Crown Lands might be available for other parts of the same course. In this way I considered that an efficient School of Mines could be equipped at a very moderate expense, and with an incalculable amount of advantage.

I was glad to find that the proposal was well received by the Press, that it was strongly advocated from the Academic chair, and that it was approved by the public.

Considering that a School of Mines would be established at no distant time, I requested and received the sanction of the Chief Commissioner of Mines to inaugurate a class of Geology and Palaeontology as a pioneer to the proposed institution. This class is now in its second session, Last session I had eight students. I have eleven this session. I have not as yet given publicity to this class, otherwise, I believe that respectable as the number now is, it would have been much larger.

It is to be hoped that the Legislature will take some decided action in this matter this session, and establish a Provincial School of Mines.

The next department in the Museum--Botanical--contains an extensive and well arranged collection of Nova Scotian Plants. There is also a neat collection of Nova Scotian Woods, a large collection of paintings of Native Wild Flowers, and interesting and curious collection of Vegetable productions from foreign countries, and a beautiful collection of Algae, marine plants, from the Island of Jersey. In the agricultural section there are a few cereals--grains--specimens of Nova Scotian Hemp and Flax, and the elegantly plaited straw work by Mrs. Begg and Miss Turner exhibited in Dublin and Paris.

The next department in thc Museum is the Zoological. This is the most extensive and attractive part of the Museum. It is classfled thus: Subkingdoms 1. Vertebrates. 2, Articulates. 3, Molluscs. 4, Radiates. 5, Protozoans. The first, Vertebates, including mammals, birds, reptiles and fishes, occupies the greater part of the wall and centre cases, Man is represented in the first wal case by plaster casts, skulls and other anatomical specimens; other mammalia are generally small in size, and not very numerous. Our limited accommodation will, in the meantime, prevent us from making many accessions to this class. The specimens are:

  • Bats, Vespertilio Subulatus.
  • Wild Cat, Blarina talpoides Lynx Rufus.
  • Poodle Dog, Maltese.
  • Weasel, Mustela Cicognanii.
  • Skunk. Mephitis Mephitica.
  • Seal, Calocephala Vitulina.
  • Squirrel, flying, Pteromys Sabrinus.
  • Squirrel, striped, Tamias Listeri.
  • Squirrel, red, Sciurus Hudsonicus.
  • Squirrel, black, Sciurus Cinereus var niger.
  • Rat, brown, Mus Decumanus.
  • Rat, black, Mus Rattus.
  • Mouse, Mus Musculus.
  • Porcupine, Erethison Dorsatum,
  • Woodchuck, Arctomys Monox.
  • Hare, Newfoundland, Lepus Glacialis.
  • Rabbit, Nova Scotian, Lepus Americanus.
  • Pangolin, Manus Pentedactylus.
  • Armadillo, Dasypus Unicinctus, Lin,
  • Musk Deer.

Here is a skeleton of the Walrus, and of the Porpoise, Elephant's teeth, horns of the Antelope family, antlers of Moose in the velvet, and otherwise, antlers of the Carribou in great variety and of noble proportions. All these are of scientific value. This subdivision of the Vertebrates is illustrated by beautiful drawings of Nova Scotian Mammals, executed from the life, by Bernard Gilpin, Esq., M. D. The habits of the Beaver are illustrated by an exquisite model of a Beaver dwelling, modelled from Beaver dwellings at Lake Rossignol. It is accompanied by a beautiful pencil drawing of a Beaver dam, Beaver cuttings, food and bedding. This illustration attracted the attention of Naturalists and others at the Paris Exhibition. It is equally attractive in the Museum, It is the work of Capt. Hardy, R. A.

There is a large collection of birds, the greater part is Native. Downs' Paris collection which received a Silver Medal was the beginning of the Museum Collection. The additions made by T. T. Egan, Taxidermist, are artistic and life like, the taxidermy being of the first class.

The Raptores birds of prey are well represented. The Bald Eagle, Haliaetos Leucocephalus with quarry is a noble specimen. The collection of Nova Scotia Owls is complete. 1, Great Horned Owl, Bubo Virginianus. 2, Long Eared Owl, Otus Wilsonianus. 3, Short Eared Owl, Brachyotus Cassinii. 4, Saw-whet Owl, Nyctale Acadica. 5, Hawk Owl, Surnia ulula. 6, Barred Owl, Syrnium nebulosum. 7, Sparrow Owl, Nyctale Richarsonii, Snow Owl, Nyctale Nivea. The Insessores or Perchers are numerous, but the collection is somewhat defective. The Rasores Scraping birds, include the foreign birds, Pheasants and Peacocks. There are the Newfoundland Ptarmigan Lagopus Salicatus, winter and autumn plumage, Quail, and the greater part of the Native birds belonging to this order.

The Grallatores, Waders and Natatores, Swimmers. include rare and beautiful birds. These orders are well represented by natives exclusively. The birds are all arranged in the wall cases. The centre-counter cases contain skeletons of birds, a Mummy of Penguin and egg, taken from a considerable depth in the Guano of the Island Ichabod. Among the nests are the Edible Swallow's nest, the Little N. Scotia Humming bird's nest with a pair of eggs, and the eggs of the Ostrich, and the Emu, &c.

In the class Reptiles:

1 Chelonians, are the Snapping Turtle. Emys pietoa, painted Turtle, Nova Scotian.

2 Saurians, Alligators, Chameleons, Lizards, Iguanas, wet preparations, and stuffed.

3 Ophidians, Serpents, Snakes, native and foreign, preparations, skins of Boa Constrictor and Rattle Snake.

4 In class Amphibians are Toads, Tree-Frogs, Frogs, Tritons, Salamanders, wet preparations, and West India Frogs, stuffed.

In the Class Fishes, Nova Scotlan Fishes preserved in the same manner as in our collection sent to the Great International Exhibition of London, 1862, and Paris, 1867. This collection is ornamental as well as useful. It is the largest collection yet made.

  1. Sea Bass, Labrax lineatus.
  2. White Perch, Labrax rufus.
  3. Sculpin, Cottus virginianus.
  4. Norway Haddock, Sebastes norvegicus.
  5. Spotted Wrymouth, Cryptacanthodes maculatus.
  6. Eel Pout, Zoarces anguillaris.
  7. Mackerel, Scomber scomber.
  8. Dollar Fish, Rhombus triacanthus.
  9. Cat Fish, Pimelodus cattus.
  10. Bill Fish, Scomberesox storeri.
  11. Brook Trout, Salmo fontinalis.
  12. Sea Trout, Salmo canadensis.
  13. Salmon, Salmo Salar.
  14. Smelt, Osmerus viridescens.
  15. Shad, Alosa prestabilis.
  16. Alewive, Gaspereau, Alosa tyrannus.
  17. Tom Cod, Morrhua pruinosa.
  18. Cod, Morrhua vulgaris.
  19. Haddock, Morrhua aeglefinis.
  20. Pollack, Merlangus Carbonarius.
  21. Cusk, Brosmius vulgaris.
  22. Lump Fish, Lumpus vulgaris.
  23. Sharp Nose Sturgeon, Accipenser oxyrinchus.
  24. Eel, Anguilla vulgaris.

It includes many rare and curious specimens. There is a great number and variety of Foreign Fishes, wet and dry preparations, e.g., Flying fishes, Dolphins, Sharks, and a small Sawfish. There are several fish skeletons representing different orders. There are formidable swords of Xiphias gladius, Sword Fish, &c., Saws of the Saw Fish from 6 inches to 8 feet in length. The largest is the weapon of a monster.

In the sub-kingdom, Articulata, there are Land Crabs and Sea Crabs, Lobsters, Homarus Americanus, very small and very large. Limulus Polyphemus, Horse-shoe Crab and Cymothoa triloba the modern representative of the ancient trilobite found as parasites, on the Cod-fish of our Banks. The Cymothoas are prepared wet and dry. There are also Barnacles, Centipedes, Scorpions, Tarantulas, Mason Spiders, Beetles, Locusts, Cicadas, native Moths and Butterflies. There is connected with the Lepidoptera a beautiful collection of Cocoons and raw Silks from India and Turkey; of Insect Architecture, there are the nests of the Mason Spiders, Mygale cementaria from Palestine, and Georgia, U.S. Hornet's, Wasp's, .and Marabunta's nests.

In sub-kingdom 3 Mollusca, there is a collection which may be regarded as Typical, every Class and Family is at least represented, from the Cephalopod Argonanta to the Teredo navalis ship worm. The specimens are dry and wet. Of the Cephalopoda--a gigantic Calamary or Squid preserved in alcohol is an unusual specimen. Two valves or shells of the Giant Clam--MACTRA GIGANTEA, weighing 87 lbs., attract attention and the illustration of the form and revages of the ship worm, is interesting and instructive.

In the sub-kingdom 4. Radiata. There are Sea Urchins, Echini, native and foreign, and Holothuria, Sea Cucumber and Star fishes. Astrophyton, Urasters and Ophiouras--native and foreign. There is also a great variety of Corals and Gorgonia--Sea Fans. A broken bottle with a brain coral and a branching coral, is a curious specimen.

In the sub-kingdom 5. Protozoa--are native sponges. wet and dry preparations, and two specimens of the beautiful Siliceous skeletons of the Euplectella speciosa, Venus's Flower Basket--sponge--from the shores of the Phillippine. Islands.

I have thus given the classification of the Zoological department of the Museum and pointed out its leading peculiarities. The growth of the department has been somewhat remarkable. About two years ago I was ashamed of its poverty, now, I can speak of its richness. Our fishermen are continually adding to its numbers, and so are captains of our own and foreign vessels. Mr. Egan, our Taxidemist, contributes to it every rare Bird that comes into his possession. Since I described the Reptiles, Mr. West has contributed a considerable addition to our tropical--Chelonians, Turtles, Saurians, Aligators, Ophidians, Snakes and Articulata Centipedes. The student of zoology can have no difficulty in finding illustrations in the Museum. The student of comparative anatomy can find in it skeletons and characteristic parts of the various classes of vertebrata and invertebrata, and the student of botany can derive a good amount of instruction from the Herbarium and other specimens.

Mr. Barrett has also added illustrations to the Zoological department. He has prepared a beautifully accurate series of Magic Lantern Slides to illustrate the classification of the Zoological Department.

The institute of Natural Science, now holds its meetings in the Museum, and its collections are associated with ours. I have no doubt that this arrangement will advance the interests of the institute and the Museum, and consequently of science in Nova Scotia.

In the Ethnological Department, New Zealand contributes a battle axe, plain and ornamental paddles, Fishing hooks and agricultural implements. The New Hebrides--articles of dress, bow and arrows and an idol. Kingsmill--an elegantly mounted stone adze. The Sandwich Islands--clubs and spears. The West India Islands--a model of a Carib's dwelling with appurtenances, a manguera for preparing Cassava starch, a quiver of poisoned arrows, bows and arrows, clubs and an elegant stone tomahawk. Paraguay--hat, bridle, and bolas, for catching wild cattle. Mexico--riding suit, bridle and wooden stirrups. Oregon--mule girth and stirrup. Indian Tribes--Digger Indian Jacket, Indian hunting suit. Crow Indians--moccassins. Delaware Indians--moccasins. Red River--Indian calumet, an elegant stone pipe, moccasins of half-breeds, Indian Chief's hat, Indian hat and collar. Aleutian Islands--plain and ornamental dresses. Greenland--hunting spear, and a beautiful model of a fully equipped Kayak. Mic-Mac--quill and bead work. Japan--a model of the interior of a Temple. China--mandarin hat and boots, lady's boot, shoes, umbrellas, bow and arrows, divining compass, money balance, fishing rod, &c.. India--paintings on mica, illustrating Hindoo customs, Burmese writing tablet, rattan, and other curiosities. Africa--Mandingo costume and weapons, and other articles of costume from the west coast. Turkey--an elegant sabre, with Damascus blade, presented by His Honor Sir Hastings Doyle, Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia, and a Turkish Hookah. Russia--a sword from the battle-field of Balaclava. Prussia--a needle-gun from the battle-field of Sadowa.

In the Department of Antiquities. The phosphate bed of South Carolina, which has supplied us with teeth and tusk of mammoth Elephas Americanus and the teeth of the great shark Carcharodon megalodon, has contributed a beautifully formed flint spear-head, an evidence of man's existence on the spot where these remains of extinct animals are entombed, and giving occasion for the belief, that these animals and man were contempories. Indiana and Texas contribute similarly formed spear and arrow heads. In the general and "Webster Collection" there is a great number of stone axes, chisels, goudges, spear heads, arrow heads, pipes, and other stone implements, from Nova Scotia and stone hatchets, from Prince Edward's Island.

It is possible that the hands which formed these spear and arrow heads might have discharged arrows so armed at the tough sides of the Mastadon Giganteus, or they might have been formed at a much later period, although beyond the time of the earliest traditions. Egypt contributes a bronze household God, and Pompeii, some of its remains of Pottery. There are also numerous relics of the French occupation of Louisburg and LaHave.

In the Department of Numismatology--There are ancient Greek and Roman coins, a complete series of casts of Roman coins chronologically arranged, Suits of British and Continental, North and South American, Indian and Colonial, Chinese, Japanese, and Siamese coins, There are Gold, Silver, and Bronze medals, and numerous medallion casts.

In the Fine Arts, we have--Busts of the Queen, Napoleon the First, Homer, Shakespeare, Wilson, Dickens, Watt, Franklin, Lord Clyde and Volta.

Paintings--Sir Humphry Davy, Wollaston, Gilbert Davis, S. G. W. Archibald, McKinlay, and Dr. Grigor. Copies by Valentine or orginals.

In Naval Architecture--There are several ship models from the Paris Exhibition, and Local Exhibition of 1868, and Robinson's patent Topsail Clew and Thimbles.

In Mechanics--There is the model of a steam engine, and Catlip's model of shear mast and shears formerly used in H. M. Dockyard.

There is also a large collection of Philosophical apparatus belonging to the Mechanic's Institute, and a Library containing many valuable scientific works.

The collections I have described, fill, I may say crowd, our noble apartment. It would require at least another room, one half the dimensions to afford proper accommodation. Our institution is popular. This is evident from the interest excited and from the readiness manifested by contributors to add to its treasures.

The multitudes that visit the Museum, are from country and town. Our register shows that our visitors are of every class and from every country--many come to be amused, many to be instructed--of the latter, there are inquirers who desire information, which the Museum is intended and fitted to impart--information, in reference to our natural history, or in reference, to the nature and extent of our resources.

The success of the institution is far beyond the most sanguine expectation. It was regarded as an experiment--it is a successful experiment. What has been done teaches what may yet be done. In a few years Nova Scotia may possess a Museum, and Exhibition of her resources without an equal in the Provinces.

I would say, its success is mainly due to the exertions and cordial support of your predecessor, the Hon. Robert Robertson, without these indispensible requisites, the project would have proved a failure.

Allow me to express my obligations to yourself for hearty support and encouragement. I had reason to expect these when you came into office.

I was assured, from the existence of a long and cordial friendship--from the interest you have invariably taken and manifested at home and abroad, in my feeble efforts to illustrate the past history of our Province and its earliest inhabitants--and to illustrate the character of our country, its resources and its present inhabitants, in the Great Exhibitions of 1862, 1865, and 1867.

I have the honor to be,

Your most obedient servant,


Provincial Museum, March 4, 1872.

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